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Feeding your baby

  • Breast milk is the best food for most babies in the first year of life.
  • Feed your baby only breast milk for the first 6 months of life.
  • At about 6 months, feed your baby solid food and breast milk.
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Breastfeeding is best

Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of life. It helps him grow healthy and strong. It also can protect him from many illnesses.

Breastfeeding is good for you, too. For example, it can help you get back to your pre-pregnancy weight (your weight before you were pregnant). And it can help you bond with your baby.

In the United States, most new moms (about 3 out of 4 or 75 percent) breastfeed their babies. About 2 out of 5 women (about 40 percent) breastfeed their babies for at least 6 months. 

How is breastfeeding good for your baby?

Here’s why breast milk is best for your baby:

  • Breast milk has hormones and the right amount of protein, sugar, fat and most vitamins to help your baby grow and develop.
  • Breast milk has antibodies that help protect your baby from many illnesses. Antibodies are cells in the body that fight off infection.
  • Breast milk has fatty acids, like DHA (docosahexanoic acid), that may help your baby’s brain and eyes develop. It may lower the chances of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). SIDS is the unexplained death of a baby younger than 1 year old.
  • Breast milk is easy to digest. A breastfed baby may have less gas and belly pain than a baby who is fed formula. Formula is a man-made product that you buy and feed your baby.
  • Breast milk changes as your baby grows so he gets exactly what he needs at the right time. For example, for the first few days after giving birth, your breasts make a thick, yellowish form of breast milk called colostrum. Colostrum has nutrients and antibodies that your baby needs in the first few days of life. It changes to breast milk in 3 to 4 days.
  • Breast milk is always ready when your baby wants to eat. Your body makes as much breast milk as your baby needs. The more you breastfeed, the more milk you make. 

Breastfed babies have fewer health problems than babies who aren't breastfed. Breastfed babies don’t have as many ear, lung or urinary tract infections. And they're less likely to have asthma, certain cancers and diabetes (having too much sugar in your blood) later in life. They also may be less likely to be obese.

Is breastfeeding good for babies with special needs?

Yes. Some babies are born premature (before 37 weeks of pregnancy) or with birth defects or other medical conditions. Breastfeeding a baby with special needs like these can help her grow and protect her from illness. But you may need help to make breastfeeding work for you and your baby. 

Talk to your provider or lactation consultant about breastfeeding your baby with special needs. A lactation consultant is a person with special training in helping women breastfeed. 

Is any amount of breastfeeding good?

Yes. It’s best to feed your baby only breast milk for at least 6 months. This means no water, formula, other liquids or solid food—just breast milk. But any amount of breastfeeding is good for your baby’s health and development. Even breastfeeding for a short time is good for your baby.

Is breastfeeding good for mom?

Yes. Breastfeeding your baby helps you because:

  • It increases the amount of a hormone in your body called oxytocin. This helps your uterus (womb) go back to the size it was before you got pregnant. It also helps stop bleeding that you have after giving birth.
  • It burns extra calories. This helps you get back to your pre-pregnancy weight more quickly.
  • It may help lower your risk for diabetes, breast cancer and ovarian cancer.

Breastfeeding also delays the return of your period. But this can make it hard to know when your body can get pregnant again. Use birth control when you start having sex again. Talk to your provider about birth control that's safe to use when you're breastfeeding. 

Is breastfeeding safe for all moms and babies?

No. Breastfeeding may not be safe for your baby if you have certain medical conditions, take certain medicines or have other problems, like using street drugs or abusing prescription drugs. You can pass some infections, medicines and drugs to your baby through breast milk. Some can be very harmful to your baby. Talk to your provider if you think you have a condition that may make breastfeeding unsafe for your baby

Last reviewed June 2014

See also: Breastfeeding your baby in the NICU, Breastfeeding: What dad can do

On the menu

  • Newborn: Breast milk or formula
  • 4-6 months: Cereal mixed with baby's milk
  • 6 months: Pureed, cooked fruits and veggies
  • 8 months: Cooked veggies and fine cut meats
  • 9 months: Macaroni, crackers, pieces of fruit

Most common questions

How much vitamin D should my baby get?

Vitamin D is important to help avoid a bone-weakening disease called rickets. All babies should receive 400 IU of vitamin D per day, starting in the first few days of life. This includes breastfed babies and babies who drink less than 1L of infant formula per day.

Our skin makes vitamin D when it gets sunlight. But too much sunlight can be harmful, too. In fact, babies 6 months and older and young kids should stay away from direct sunlight and wear sunscreen at all times when out in the sun. However, sunscreen stops the skin from making vitamin D. The best way to get enough vitamin D is by giving your baby liquid multivitamin drops with vitamin D. They can be found in many pharmacies, and you won't need a prescription for it. Just be sure you've filled the dropper to no more than 400 international units (IU).

How often should I nurse my baby?

All babies are different and have different feeding patterns. In general, breastfed newborns need to eat 8 to 12 times in 24 hours (about once every 2 to 3 hours), for about 30 minutes each time. Breast milk is easily digested so it may be difficult to time when you should nurse your baby.

Newborns may need to feed more frequently than older babies. They may need to be fed on demand. As your milk supply is established and the baby grows, the baby's feeding patterns may change and she may go longer between feedings. Remember, breastfeeding is a natural skill, but it’s also a learned skilled. Be patient and give yourself (and your baby) time to master this new ability.

What solids foods should I start my baby on?

Begin with a single-grain iron-fortified cereal such as rice, barley or oatmeal. Mix it with breast milk or infant formula. Start with a small amount once a day. It's hard to tell how much your baby will eat. At first, most of her food will probably end on her bib or face. Be patient and help your baby learn this new skill. It's important that meal time is a pleasant time. This will build the foundation of healthy eating habits. If your baby cries, shows no interest in feeding or turns her head away from the spoon, stop feeding her. She is trying to tell you that she's full or she doesn’t want anymore. You should never force her to eat more than what she wants.

When should I give my baby solid foods?

Breast milk is the best food for most babies. It's best to give only breast milk for the first 6 months of life. Some babies might be ready to start solid foods between 4 to 6 months of age. When your baby is between 4 to 6 months, she may begin to show signs that she's ready to try some solid foods alongside her breast milk or formula. Watch for her developmental cues (signs) and she'll let you know when she's ready. Some signs that show your baby might be ready to start solid foods are:

  • She can sit with support.
  • She shows a good head neck control when seated.
  • She shows a desire for food by opening her mouth, drooling and leaning forward.
  • She begins to chew and brings her hands to her mouth.
  • She begins to handle objects with the palm of her hand.
  • She swallows pureed food and the extrusion reflex starts to go away (tongue-thrust reflex).

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